The Journal of Social Environment
ISSN: 2454-3063
Cosmos Impact Factor: 4.472

The Journal of Bengal Geographer
ISSN: 2319-619X
Cosmos Impact Factor: 6.420

The Journal of Population Research
ISSN: 2347-1816
Cosmos Impact Factor: 5.535

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Discipline Covered


Published Papers


The situation of sanitation in India: an overview on environmental and health issues

Sk Ajim Ali

The present study is an attempt to overview on the situation of sanitation facility in India from an environmental viewpoint by especially emphasizing on effects on human health. With a population of 1.21 billion, India is the most populous country in the world. While keeping one of the most populous countries, India occupying the second place in the world just after China and accounting for 16.7% of the world population but India accounts for only 2.42% of the total world area. The density of population per sq.km in India was 77 person/ sq.km in 1901, which is risen to 382 person/ sq.km in 2011. When talk about individual state, Bihar and West Bengal hold a population density of 1106 person/ sq.km and 1028 person/ sq.kn respectively. From the above population statistics of India as a developing country it is easily say that basic problems related to sanitation already existed. The generation of human’s waste in India is in alarming stage. So, a necessary emphasize must be given towards Sanitation situation. The term ‘Sanitation’ is connected with keeping places clean and healthy to live in it especially by removing human’s waste. NSS report asserted that 32% rural households have their own toilets and  less than half of Indian households have a toilet at home. This report also asserted that billion of people in the world who defecate in open place and more than 50% of them reside in India. Many policies has failed to implement to face such problems and as the result of such overcrowding and poor sanitation led towards disease, low quality of life and many health impacts. On an average in India, the per capita waste generation rate is between 220 to 870 gm/ day and it is varies depending upon the topographical and regional location, life style, size of city etc. if the solid waste, waste water and other human generated mixed waste are not planned for safe and healthy disposal, the situation become more worse to environments and led towards more poor sanitation. In carrying out the study, secondary source of data is highly used from different governmental sources. One of the key objectives of this study is to highlight on present sanitation situation in India with special references to environmental aspects and health issues.

The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group counseling for depression and anxiety among the elder people in Ethiopia

Dr. Mohan S. Singhe, Liranso Gebreyohannes Selamu , Beza Getachew Woldemarim

The study examined whether Cognitive Behavioral Group Counseling (CBGC) is effective in addressing psychological problems of elders in Talita orphans, girls and the aged support organization (TOGASO). Eighty four participants aged 60-85 selected purposefully based on inclusion criteria were randomly assigned into the control and treatment groups each with 24 participants. The research design was a randomized treatment and controlled pre-test and post-test experimental design. Two standardized scales, namely, geriatric depression scale  (GDS), and geriatric anxiety inventory (GAI) were  used to measure the dependent variables at two occasions: pre-test and post-test. Participants in the treatment group received CBGC for six weeks, three days per week, 1:00-1:20 hours per session for a total of 12 sessions. Results of independent t-test indicated that there was statistically significant difference between treatment group and control group during the post-test at 0.05 level of significance (df = 46, t=4.397, p < 0.01) in depression scores and also in anxiety there was statistically significant difference between control group and treatment group during the post-test at 0.05 level of significance (df =46, t=4.397, p<0.01). Finally, the result indicated that cognitive behavioral group counseling was effective in treating depression and anxiety among the elderly. From these results it was suggested that the application of CBGC has to be expanded to address psychological problems of elders in more other organizations or settings.  

Status of development in different blocks of Jalpaiguri district

Mr.Sunanada Das

Jalpaiguri is one of the most backward districts of west Bengal where poverty is a barrier to development. Generally poverty is measured by Below Poverty Line (BPL) indices in rural areas. Below poverty line is an economic bench mark and poverty threshold used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human need such as clean water, nutrition care, clothing and shelter. This paper is attempted to study the poverty status with some remedial measures.

Folk resource utilization and sustainability of rural livelihood: an inquiry on Purulia Chhau mask making art in Chorda village, Baghmundi C. D. Block, Purulia district

Ayanika Sarkar, Biswaranjan Mistri

Human culture is produced and reproduced by interaction of man and environment. Cultural aspect becomes resource when it meets the needs of man. Folk art tradition has continuously been recreated and regenerated from one generation to another by the concerned community due to change in livelihood and perception of aesthetic environment. By this way, the folk art tradition becomes a folk resource of man-environment symbiosis and the culture based folk resource utilization helps in sustaining the life and livelihood of the people.    Among many regional masked folk dances of West Bengal, Purulia Chhau dance of Purulia District is characterized by the most elegant and gorgeous masks. The masks of Purulia Chhau is not only an essential part of the dance but also have gained popularity as a separate work of art. The paper pulp mask is mainly made up by a community, called, Sutradhars who have been basically engaged in the profession by generation after generation.  This field based empirical investigation has highlighted the dynamics of mask-making art in the context of global consumerism and changing nature of the concerned community through the arduous door to door survey.   

A temporal analysis of changing land use pattern and cropping intensity in Mahamaya Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Mumtaj Ahmad, Pasarul Islam

In the present paper an attempt has been made to analyse the general land use pattern and to outline the temporal changes of land use pattern and cropping intensity and examine the relationship between changing land use pattern under various categories with cropping intensity in the region. The study is based on secondary sources of data obtained from Census of India (2011) and Sankhyikiya Patrika (SP) published by Economics & Statistical Division (ESD), Government of Uttar Pradesh 2001 & 2014. Blocks have been taken as the unit of study. Pie diagrams as well as bar diagrams have been prepared to show the land use pattern and cropping intensity of the district. Correlation between changing land use pattern and cropping intensity has been made by using SPSS software. After analysis, we found that there is shrinking of fallow land, barren land and forest toward area under non agriculture use land which reflects bad impression on cropping intensity. Thus, it is the intensification of crop on limited land resource to meet demands of food for the fastest growing population of India.  

A statistical analysis among the intensity of cropping with other parameters of jalpaiguri districts West Bengal

Sunanda Das

The main objective of this study are to analyses  the extent of intensification of agriculture in Terai-Doors region of Jalpaiguri district, to find out the extent of agriculture and find out the factors responsible for increasing the intensity of cropping. The analysis reveals that there is a block wise variation in the intensity of cropping and it is high where density of population is high, but a whole it is found to be low in the whole region. Therefore, all kinds of efforts should be made to increase the intensity of cropping in the region in order to achieve higher level of agricultural production and productivity.

A study on basic economic activities based on the east Kolkata wetland

Shovon Kumar Pal

 Wetlands play a great role in flood control, treatment of waste water, reduction of sediments, control of pollution, Protect uplands from erosion, Increase water quality, Provide setting for recreation, Moderate local climate, Recharge groundwater and Produce various types of fishes and organic matter. These wetlands have been existing for more than one hundred years, a lasting tradition of disposal and utilization of urban waste in agricultural field and fisheries. The local people have employed a remarkable system of nature to help to meet the basic needs. The East Kolkata Wetlands are used to recycle all the garbage and pollutants. Fulfils substantially the requirement of fish, vegetables and food-grains in the city, maintain the delicate ecological balance in a fragile environment and ecosystem. Provide the food chain and waste-to-wealth recycling. Fulfil substantially the requirement of fish, vegetables and food-grains in the city. Absorb and treat urban solid, sewage, wastewater, air waste generated, in the most efficient, economical and natural way. Provide livelihood support for local villagers who also have the unique skill of using wastewater to grow fish and vegetables and thereby help to sustain a stable urban fringe.This study has analyzed the causes of economic activities based on the East Kolkata Wetlands. This paper is concerned with the economic activities of the wetlands and how its impact has changed the urban economy and the urban environment. Many of the urban poor live in wetlands areas and are deprived of various basic needs. The East Kolkata Wetlands are consists of 264 operating Fisheries / Bheris and vast agricultural field which are the most economic prosperous zone in future.  So this study proves that the East Kolkata Wetlands provide the various basic needs of poor dwellers.

A study on socio-economic disparities in Barpeta district of Assam, India

Ms.Merry Choudhury

The variations of all demographic characteristics have directly or indirectly been dependent upon the socio-economic development of a region. The study of social characteristics of populations includes a number of elements, which is generally viewed as a basic ingredient of social component influencing economic development. In the district there exist notable spatial variations. As study thus framed is to analyze the existing socio-economic characteristics of the population. The present study is an attempt to provide information and extend examination of variation and problems relating to population in the perspectives of relating to population in the perspectives of regional development and planning in the Barpeta district. The study holds both the subjective and objective assessments. The present district of Barpeta cover an area of 3245 sq. km, within the Indo-Bhutan Border in the north, the district of Nalbari in the east, the part of Kamrup district in the south and the Bongaigaon district in the West. The study area lies between the parallels of 2605/ and 26051/ N and 90020/E and 91038/E meridians. The total population of the district now stands at 16,47,201 with an average density 508 persons per sq.km. as per 2001 census.   

Developmental projects and Environmental Justice struggles in Odisha: A study on protest movements against developmental projects

Mr.Braja Kishore Sahoo

The state continues to be the key institution around which struggles for environmental justice in India are articulated. Its dominant role in the economy and its hierarchical, authoritarian and legitimate role as arbiter of rights and resources, the violation of its own environmental laws or acts in ways inimical to environmental justice has been protected by indigenous people. In my paper, I draw on the theme of the protest movements against developmental projects which are rooted in the livelihood and survival of the common people and the violation of human rights. The threats of displacement, loss of livelihood, alienation from their own surroundings are catalysts for this strand of the movement. Based on this perspective, I discuss how the main aim of these environmental justice struggles in Odisha are based around the re-scaling of development projects to the local level, the defense of common property resources and the restoration of participatory, community based forms of environmental management.

Fluoride contamination of underground water and health hazard in Nasipur village of Birbhum district (WB) - A case study

Priyabrata Mondal

Water is life. Human being can not survive with out water. Water is needed for drinking, taking bath, washing, irrigation and for building purpose. Of all these, drinking purpose is most sensitive because drinking water must be purified from the viewpoint of health. Nextly, water used for irrigation must also be well balanced mineralised. Underground water is such a source which is equally important for both these purposes. Fluoride is a compound remains in a certain amount in water. Fluoride compound (F ¯ ) is necessary for a certain content to eradicate the dental caries. It does harden the tooth and bones. The normal level of fluoride in underground water is 1 or 1.5 mg. per litre. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. Crossing this limit fluoride contaminates the water. If that water is used for drinking purpose then health hazard may occur. This health hazard is known as fluorosis. Person once attacked by this never is cured from this. Patients lost their ability to do work. “The Nasipur is the first place to report cases of fluorosis in West Bengal. The village is located in Nalhati Block-I of Birbhum district” (Chatterjee, 2004). It is in interest to us to find out the problems of fluoride affected people of Nasipur village and to find out the alternative measures to solve this in conclusion part.

Intelligence quotient as predictor of creativity among some higher secondary school students

Dr. S.Chandrasekaran

This study investigated how Intelligence Quotient predicts general level of creativity and different components of creativity; Personality, Fluency, Originality, Flexibility and Creativity motivation among some higher secondary school students in Chennai and Tiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu state, India. A total of six hundred students were randomly selected from 15 schools in each district, 20 students in each schools total 30 schools the state to participate in the study. Two instruments were used to collect data they are: Student’s Intelligence Test (SIT), and Students Creative Assessment Scale (SCAS). Data was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Intelligence Quotient (I.Q) accounted for 9% 0f variance in creativity (R2=0.90) this percentage is statistically significant. Also, I.Q should be considered in selecting students for tasks that involve creativity.

Problems of development of bamboo based industries in Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal

Nuruzzaman Kasemi

 Bamboo provides the base for a broad range of rural and semi-urban cottage industries that provide livelihood for the rural poor, particularly home-based workers in the unorganized sector. By providing off-farm income generation options, these bamboo-based livelihood systems frequently absorb surplus agricultural workers - mainly the rural poor who do not have regular on-farm employment. These industries are mostly household based where the production of commodity takes place in the surroundings of homes and the workers, the so called labours are supplied by the family members only. The craftsmen himself is the proprietor in each unit and is assisted by his own family. An overwhelming number of bamboo-based industries are found in Jalpaiguri district, majority of which are located in the rural area. The industries are suffering from numerous problems. The prevalence of outdated mode of production has hampered the growth and development of the sector. The biggest impediment towards the bamboo based sector from developing has been the irregular supply of bamboo for entrepreneurial use. The study is based on 75 sample units drawn from 29 villages of the district through field survey. The objective the paper is to study the characteristic features of the industries and find out problems of the sector and suggest remedial measures for development.  

Social exclusion and health deprivation of Dalits and Tribes in Karnataka India

Prakash Marpady, Liranso G. Selamu, Dr. Mohan S. Singhe

This paper examines the linkages between caste and social exclusion in health domain. In country like India, people from certain groups have been excluded from the mainstream society just because of their caste and social identity. The scheduled castes and tribes are been excluded from the health services and subject to the deprivation. Here researchers made an effort to explain the notion of social exclusion and how it has nexus with health indicators of SCs and STs. Study has compiled data from National Family and Health Survey (NFHS-III) of 2005-06. Three major indicators of reproductive and child health have been considered to analyze the phenomena. As an outcome of cross-tabulation and analysis, it was found that there is a strong association between social identity and health care service utilization. SCs/STs are lagging behind as compare to other social groups. Women and children from these groups denied to health care services that made them more vulnerable to the health.  

Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and acute respiratory infections in children under 5 year: a case study of rural household in Cooch Behar district.

Mr. Keshab Mondal

The solid biomass is a common source of fuel, which is broadly used for cooking in rural households of developing countries of the world. The most of solid biomass fuels are wood, agricultural crops and dung cake etc which are the highly polluted fuel as well as the main source of indoor air pollution in rural areas. The present study was carries out for impact of solid biomass fuel combustion on children under 5 year. It is found that most of diseases are generated from indoor polluted air such as bronchitis, tuberculosis, asthma, eye irritation, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and skin infections, joint pain other respiratory diseases etc. The result depicts a clear correlation between acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years and solid biomass combustion in rural areas of Cooch Behar district, West Bengal. Ultimately the rural household of Cooch Behar District in West Bengal which is experiencing various types of respiratory infections in children below five year represent itself in the paper as a victim of such health degradation due to solid biomass combustion in rural cooking and seeks some remedial measures for declining the problems.   

Tourism efficiency in Khunti district of Jharkhand

Satya Priya Mahato & Dr. Falguni Gupta

According to Hunziker and Krapf” Tourism is the sum total of the phenomena and relationship arising from the travel and stay of non-residents in so far as it does not lead to permanent residence and is not connected to any earning activity.” Now a day the tourism has emerged as one of the world’s largest industries which are not only providing pleasure and enjoyment to the tourists but it provides job opportunities to millions of people .On the other hand, tourism also plays a great role for the development of a zone for the country. It may also create national integration and various kinds of cultural landscapes within the country.                   Jharkhand is the 28th state of the India and the district of Khunti has been carved out as a new district on 12th September in 2007 from the district of Ranchi, the   study region is a part of Chotanagpur plateau in general and especially Ranchi planation surface in particular. The district of Khunti is blessed with the natural beauty of its vast and varied relief and its natural resources. It is a region of unevenness land consisting of a succession of plateau, hills, hillocks, and valleys which are drained by several perennial and non-perennial rivers, viz., Tajna, Kanchi, South-Koel, and Karo etc. A number of waterfalls is found in different parts of the study region. The study area is covered by the dense forest with various types of trees. The climatic conditions are so attractive for the tourists. Here, cool and calm climate is suitable for good health. On the other hand, the district of Khunti has a rich cultural heritage. The area is dominated   by different tribal and non-tribal communities are also live together. From the view point of tribal culture, the study area is centre for foreigners and research scholars. Different communities who speak different languages and they celebrates different festivals together throughout the year show the great symbol of unity. Key words : 1.Natural beauty, 2.Cool climate, 3.Tribal races, 4.Lack of development, 5. Needs Planning and development, 6.Economical benefit, etc.

Assessment of soil quality using soil organic carbon and its impact on agriculture productivity in Dakdhin Dinajpur district

Mr.Nibesh Barman

Assessment of soil quality is an invaluable tool in determining the sustainability and environmental impact of agricultural ecosystems. Soil carbon plays a key role in maintaining crop productivity in the soils. The study was conducted to assess the soil quality using soil organic carbon and its impact on agriculture productivity in Dakshin Dinajpur District. The soil of the study area is very fertile old alluvial soil. SOC is the main constituent of soil organic matter (SOM).Organic matter impacts on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The amount of carbon in a soil is influenced by the balance between inputs (plant residues) and losses, mainly microbial decomposition and associated mineralization.  

Population and food security: India's challenge

Savita Ahlawat, Dhian Kaur

The status of food security has been a matter of great concern in the era of increasing population. In India, after Green Revolution the growth rate of foodgrains production has however been higher than the population growth rate and it tried to keep pace with the increasing population over the long time in order to sustain the increasing population. The per capita availability of foodgrains which improved after Green Revolution from 395 grams in 1951 to 468 grams in 1971 and 510 grams in 1991 has declined to 462 grams in 2012. The declining trend has serious implications for the country's food security situation. The present study intends to analyse the effects of above highlighted issues viz. increasing population and its effects on the status of food security in India. The results showed that due to population growth agricultural intensification has increased which lead to problems of land degradation, overexploitation of underground water resources, water logging, salinization and alkalinization. These problems are more peculiar in Green Revolution areas mainly in north-western states. The study suggests that to have sustainable food security region specific measures should be taken.   

Analysis of Micro Level Disparities in Healthcare Infrastructure in Allahabad District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Amit Kumar Singh, Prof. V.K.Kumra

For over past sixty years health has been among the few issues in India. Health is the basic and primary need of people and good health. It is also a major resource for social, economic and personal development. It prepares a background for any nation to progress in socio-economic, scientific, educational and other spheres. Therefore, it should not be viewed in isolation from other goals of development. The progress of any country or society greatly depends on the quality of life of its people. The present study is an attempt to analyse the block level disparity in health attainment in Allahabad district at two times period 2004-05 and 2014-15. To analyse the regional disparities in twenty blocks of the district, nine variables have been selected and have been measured by using the Development Index. In the analysis, it has been observed that some blocks are found to be stagnant; others are either moving forward or going backward in the district during 2004-05 and 2014-15. The overall condition is worst in 2014-15 in comparison to previous years.

A spatial analysis of potato productivity in Hooghly district of west Bengal

Sandipan Ganguly & Palash Patra

West Bengal ranks second in terms of potato production in India (Department of Agriculture Cooperation, Govt. of India). Hooghly district is one of the leading potato producing districts of West Bengal. The paper attempts to analyse the level of potato productivity in Hooghly district of West Bengal during the time span of 2007-08. The present study is entirely based on the secondary data which have been collected mainly from the District Statistical Handbook, 2008. Crop yield and concentration indices ranking coefficient of Singh (1976) has been used to demarcate the blocks of Hooghly district in terms of potato productivity. The paper reveals that the highest yield index of potato is found in Pursurah block (133.05) and the lowest in Khanakul- II (20.37). The highest concentration index of potato has been recorded in Pursurah (151.05) and the lowest as 22.02 in Serampur-Uttarpara block. The highest level of potato productivity has been found in Pursurah block and the lowest in Balagarh block. To minimise the disparity in potato productivity across the blocks of Hooghly district, special emphasis should be given to the efficient use of modern technological inputs and allocation of fertile alluvial tracts with better use of irrigation.  

Prevent child marriage: an essay with special reference to Kanyashree Prakalpa of West Bengal

Md. Hasan Ali, Dr. Sanjay Kr. Jha

Child marriage is one of serious social crisis in the world today. A marriage is regarded as a child marriage in technical sense when the matrimonial tie occurs between a minor boy and a minor girl or one of them does not reach at the legal age of marriage. Practically it is a form of early and forced alliance that is unfortunately considered to be a traditional norm and practice. Child marriage is a serious human right violation because it has a debilitating impact on the lives specially of girls. It occurs particularly in developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. South Asia accounts for almost half of all child marriages that occur globally. India is one of the countries in this region where girl child marriage is an unbending social problem. In spite of taking some legal and regulatory measures the prevalence of girl child marriage a concern for India till today. In some states in India more than 50% girls come in laws' house in their childhood. West Bengal is one of those states. The present Government of West Bengal in order to prevent the prevalence of girl child marriage and to the holistic development of girls introduced KanyshreePrakalpa in the year 2013. It is a State Government sponsored conditional direct cash transfer scheme for underprivileged girls. The scheme is designed in such a way that reducing the tendency of drop out from school; it motives girls of poor families to pursue higher study and at the same time protect them from the harmful social custom of marriage at young age.  

Accelerated Geomorphic Hazard and Its Impact on Recent Coastal Environment: A Case Study at Jaldah To Mandarmoni Of Purba Medinipur (West Bengal)

Jitendra shukla, subhankar patra & Md.Azfar Mondal

The Coast is a most important dynamic zone of the West Bengal. This paper assesses the impact of Accelerated geomorphic hazard on recent coastal environment. The coastal erosion is most important for the changing coastal environment along the jaldah to Mandarmoni coastal tract, which is part of West Bengal coast. Through the erosional mark and shifting of shoreline and also related data have been detected that the coastal accelerated geomorphic hazard, coastal erosion has remarkable along this area over the last decade. As a result of that the shore line has been shifted landward and the entire environment has changed. It has been observed that the coastal erosion and shifting of shoreline of this area also shifted landward at a rate of 4m to 12m/year. At many places the coastal dunes, coastal vegetation and also ecosystem are totally destroyed by accelerate wave erosion. The agricultural land and fish farms are also affected by these accelerated hazards.   

Working status of rural women: a study of Tufanganj block-I, Coochbehar district, West Bengal

Pinku Das

Rural economy of India is characterised by a massive presence of merely paid women workers. Rural women workforce plays a significant role in the economy who participated in large number of economic activity in agriculture and allied sector. Equitable access to more and better jobs in rural areas enable rural women to become effective economic actors and engines of growth. In India female participation in labour market has increased due to increasing rate of employment opportunities. The entry of women in labour market has fundamentally changed the status of women in the family as well as in the society. Today, indigenous women are increasingly entering the formal and informal labour market, as self-employed workers or wage earners. However women are facing new challenges regarding their social status which varies from rural to urban areas and various families in one area. Gender inequality, limited access to credit, health care and education has posed a number of challenges for rural women in all states of India. They also face many domestic and social problems. For the work, primary data was obtaining through field survey. Again, secondary data were collected from various sources and analyzed with suitable statistical and cartographic techniques. Present research study has tried to explore the status of rural working women of Tufanganj Block-I and their distribution in different sector. Most of the women workers of the study area belong to poor economic condition which is the main reason of their work. In conclusion part proper suggestions are incorporated to arrest the problem.  

Impact of modern agricultural technology on environment: a case study in Memari block of Burdwan district, West Bengal

Sk Ajim Ali

The present study is an attempt to identify major environmental impacts due to application of modern technologies in agriculture. Technology refers to how to cultivate a crop successfully. This success can be obtain by knowing how to apply fertilizer, control pests and take care of crops for its healthy and good growth. There are no way to doubt that modern technologies are the best method of improving the yields of crops, protecting crops against disease and pest, making livestock healthy at all the time, but there are also some environmental issues relating to this improved agricultural inputs. Rapid population growth & economic development (mainly due to agricultural expansion and development) are threatening the environment through expansion and intensification of agriculture, uncontrolled growth of urbanization, industrialization and destruction of natural habits. The growing population put immense pressure on land at the cost of forest and engages on land modification and extensification because the demand of food could not increase substantially to population. Thus horizontal extension of land has fewer scopes and relies mostly on vertical improvements (i.e. production) that is supported by technical development in the field of agriculture i.e. HYV seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and agricultural implements. All these particles are causing degradation and depletion of environment with multiplying ratio. The main objective of the present study is to study the significant Spatio-temporal change in both its agricultural practice and environmental impact. A case study method has applied in this study in order to obtain field level data collection.   

Culinary tourism: a recent trend in global tourism; finding its present status and future scope in India

Soham Biswas

Food Tourism is one of the latest and growing trends worldwide in recent years; since mounting number of tourists interested in culinary destinations – a trend that seems to consolidate year after year. In India, tourism industry is one of the largest sectors in terms of its contribution to the country’s GDP and FEE. A large number of Foreign Tourists visits India every year. Besides enjoying India’s scenic beauty of amazing landscapes, they are stepping into pursue the food culture of the country. Indian cuisine is world famous for its charm, aroma, taste, diversity and extravagant spices and the country is rightly known as “HOME OF SPICES”. The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the present status, future scope as well as to suggest some ideological and theoretical strategies to promote Culinary Tourism in India. This paper is based on secondary data and review of literatures and Predictive Forecasting Method has been used. The study reveals that, in India Food Tourism is in its embryo stage though the country possesses a diversified and richly cuisine tradition. The study may be helpful to the Government policy makers to push the country’s economic growth through the promotion of Culinary Tourism. 

Impacts of riverbank erosion of floodplain areas of Torsa river at Cooch Behar-II

Sourav Dey

Cooch Behar district is a land of many perennial rivers. The Torsa River flows through Tibet, Bhutan, India and Bangladesh. Cooch Behar district is mainly formed of the processes of alluvial deposits. Only seven mauzas I have selected for my research work. This paper provides an overview of coochbehar block II residence displaced by river bank erosion. This research work describes the socio-economic as well as environmental conditions of the study area with a special attention to natural hazards. Riverbank erosion  of a considerable proportion of the victims are compelled to leave the original homestead plot and take shelter by the left embankment, cultivated land, neighbors land, Government  and relative lands. The health and economic conditions of the victims are extremely low. In fact, riverbank erosion causes every year unemployment, landlessness and poverty is increasing which results from unstable condition of this area. This physical process affects the economic and socio-cultural aspects and creates drastic change over the period. Continuous monitoring and maintenance of these floods induces river bank management which is necessary for the beneficial result. The distressed people demand a holistic and positive approach to tackle the problem. The information on losses of livelihoods, generated vulnerabilities, social destructions, impacts on agriculture, impacts on environment, relief and benefit for erosion victims and livelihood dependence on the river is collected through semi-structured questionnaire survey.  

Causes of soil pollution and alternative measures to reduce it in Choto Sangra Mouza of Birbhum District, West Bengal

Koyel Mukherjee

The causes of soil pollution are complex and far reaching. Actually it has economic impacts and this in term causes social impacts. Agriculture is the base of village economy. It has been evolved through different stages, from the past to this modern era.In traditional agriculture farmers used to depend on farm manure and cow dung as natural sources of plant nutrients. This traditional system of applying manure could only support low yields but there was no strain on the inherent of the soil. Modern agriculture largely depends on the use of high cost inputs such as chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, herbicides etc. The application of such inputs has undoubtedly increased the production but there is growing concern over the adverse effects of the use of chemicals on soil productivity and environment quality.Now in case of Choto Sangra, only organic manure was used for crop cultivation before forty to fifty years. So, the production of crop was less than now but now with chemical fertilizer, HYV seeds etc the production of this village has no doubt become increased.Negative effect of modern agriculture is also found that the excessive use of chemical fertilizer has reduced the fertility of field. Undergone demonstration is not practiced here. So, sometimes farmers use chemical fertilizers and pesticides unscientifically. Consumption of chemical pesticides had increased during 1990-91 and decreased during 1995-96 and further come down to about 1998-99 while it is necessary to add the required amount of plant food nutrients in the soil to increase crop production. Continuous removal of micronutrient due to excessive amount of chemical inputs application is depleting the soil fertility. It is however, easy to standardize the optimum levels of production factors at the experimental sites but very difficult to popularize them among the vast majority of farmers. Due to tropical climate, organic carbon status, phosphate status of this soil is low. Potash, a nutrient is adequate in the soils of Choto Sangra village. As remedial measure, organic agriculture should be practiced. It relies upon crop rotations with leguminous crops, addition of crop residues, animal manure, bio fertilizer and bio pesticides.

Estimation of climatic balance and ground water potential in Sriniketan-Santiniketan planning area

Subhra Ghosh & Dr. Debashis Das

In order to meet the water shortages, search for new sources of fresh water especially ground water has been emphasized. For this purpose both qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied. The former are largely based on water table profiles and contours whereas the later are based on change in ground water shortage and factors causing them. Some of the villages of the study area record over utilization and remaining record under utilization of ground water. Water balance for the area as a whole has been studied for each of the heavy, normal and low rainfall years. Water is surplus in the months of August and September in heavy rainfall years, and in July and August in normal rainfall year. Naturally, there is no surplus in less rainfall years. A suitable plan for its development has been emphasized here by taking into account conjunctive use of water resources.  

Levels of development of literacy in Bankura district, West Bengal

Md. Azfar Mondal

       literacy may be defined as the person who is  more than seven years of age read, write and understanding in any language of society . It is an essential part of human life which eradicates poverty and mental isolations. Literacy influences on society for creating friendly and peaceful environment. It is an important index of development of society. It influences on fertility, mortality, social advancement, friendly international relations, economic growth, political maturity, occupation etc. Illiteracy on the other hand is the major hindrance of development.  It retarded society from of all sides by ignorance of real understanding of society. The district Bankura is located in between 22038'N to 23038'N latitude and 86036' E to 87046' E longitude. It is located at the western part of West Bengal and eastern part of Chhotonagpur plateau. The eastern part of this district is a part of Gangetic deltaic region. According to the census 2011 more than quarter number peoples are illiterates. Here the literacy is 70.26% where the male is 80.05% and female is only 60.05%. Here many people migrates seasonally to the eastern part of some other district like Burdwan and Hooghly as a labour  to the agricultural field of paddy sowing and cutting  times of both aman and boro seasons. Here many people are very poor. In this paper I will try to show the development and problem of literacy by different statistical, cartographic methods. Literacy development index and index of deprivation have been computed for this purposes and lastly a major comparison will be made to show the temporal variation and trends of literacy.

Morphology and evolution of the Pennar river basin

G. Rambabu & M. Sambasiva Rao

The geomorphology is the study of formation of landforms on the earth surface through various  geomorphic processes and agents envolved in their formation. The exogenetic and endogenetic processes are responsible for the formation of landforms. River basin is the land area in which the main river and its tributaries drain. Studies on geomorphology and evolution of Sarada river basin are carried out by PrudviRaju and Vaidhyanathan (1981). The evolution of landforms over the Nilagiri’s of southern India are described by Parthasaradi and Vaidhyanathan (1974). Verstappen (1966) has described the role of landform classification in integrated survey. Suryanarayan  (1982) has mapped the landforms of the Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu  state and described that there is double pediplanation in the state of Tamil Nadu. Mabbutt (1966) has described the landforms of the western Mac Donnell ranges. Studies on geomorphology and evolution of major deltas of the east coast of the India are carried out by Sambasiva Rao etal (1978), Sambasiva rao and Vaidhyanathan (1979)Sambasiva Rao (1982, 2002), Kaladevi (1985) has studied the terrain characteristics, landforms and brought out the evolution of Vaigai river basin.  

Pattern and differential of literacy in Western Maharashtra: A Geographical analysis

Dr. Govindrao Uttam Todkari

Literacy rate is one of the important demographic elements, which is a good measure of human progress towards modernization. Literacy has been defined as the ability to read and write with understanding. Indian literacy is characterized with sharp differences in between the rate of male and females; of rural and urban areas; and of various population subgroups. There are inter-regional variations in literacy rate among Western Maharashtra. The literacy variations are quite significant between male-female and rural-urban in this area. In this present paper, the western Maharashtra region is selected for analyzing these variations of literacy and differential of literacy. For this study, the secondary data are used which collected from socio-economic abstract of district. The collected data are analysed by using statistical and cartographic techniques.  Such type of study represents real situation of literacy in Western Maharashtra which helps to planners, scientists and research scholars.    

An overview of women education in India

Mr.Bhupen Barman

        Female literacy is considered a key factor for the rapid development of a country. An educated woman is important for decision making in relation health seeking, family planning, nutrition and economic issues etc. She not only helps in the development of human resources, but in improving the quality of life. There is a disparity in literacy between men and women in India. At present status and awareness of women that entrepreneurship opens up new fields for they and they can achieve their cherished profession which has independent and self support.    

Land use pattern in Haryana: a geographical analysis

Mr. Monu Kumar

Haryana state is one of the most prosperous agriculture states of India. Here, mostly populations are engaged to agriculture activity. Therefore, Land is one of the most critical recourses for the poor dependent on farming for their livestock. The ever-increasing population together with escalating demands brings extra pressure on available land resources and pushes toward land use change. Change in the land affects directly on the ecosystem and are intimately linked with the issue on sustainability. The challenge for developing countries is to develop land management programms to increase the availability of high quality fertile lands in areas where population growth is high, poverty is endemic and existing institutional capacity is week. Understanding of land use change in relation to its driving forces provides essential information for land use planning and sustainable management of resources. In order to use land optimally, it is not only necessary to have information on exiting land use but also capability to monitor the dynamics of land use resulting out the changing demands of increasing population. The present paper analyzes the existing land use pattern comparing the data of 2001-02 to 2011-12 and change in land use pattern of Haryana state. It also focuses upon the causes behind these changes.  

Assessing the maternal health benefit schemes-a study on Bankura district, West Bengal

Dr. Priyadarshini Sen

Reduction of mortality of women is an area of concern for not only South Asian countries like India but for most of the nations globally. The International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 had stressed on the immediate task of reducing the maternal mortality and hence improving the health conditions of mothers to-be and their newborns as well by the year 2015. Indian states suffer from high levels of disparity as far as maternal health is concerned measured by the parameters like those beneficiaries covered under government sponsored immunization programmes ,with better encouragement of institutional deliveries and alike. For West Bengal the matter is yet serious because as a whole the state has been categorised ‘high performing’ as far as institutional deliveries and Maternal Mortality Rates are concerned but one of its backward districts; Bankura suffers from huge gap in the target achievement form maternal benefit schemes than actually happens. A geographically rich area containing huge potentials for agro-forestry, suffers from less than adequate number of hospitals and less awareness of the benefit schemes may be due to illiteracy and position of women in their domestic atmosphere. This paper identifies some out of many such problem ‘areas’ of Bankura district in order to plan better for the beneficiaries who are residing in the remote backward regions of the country.

Mapping sex composition of Indian metropolises

Dr. Jitendra Kumar

The present work of sex composition has examined in geographic perspective metropolises in India that constitute an important component of Indian urban system. The main point of inquiry is to analysis the change and regional variation of sex composition of metropolises. There are fifty two metropolises in India as per final totals of census 2011. The study follows a systematic approach. In order to find out the results, census data has been used from 1901-2011. The existing sex ratio in the country is basically the product of differential in mortality at various stages of life. In urban areas highly urbanized and industrialized places mainly have low sex ratio due to male selective in migration to such areas. Metropolises located in south India are marked with a relatively more favourable sex ratio  as compared to north and north-west states.  It is observed that sex ratio in cities with million plus population is high where the urban and rural sex ratio of the state is high. It is noticed that sex ratio in the age group 0-6 has declined by (- 2) point in metropolises in the last decade. The decline in child sex ratio has been equally common in rural as well as urban areas, although the magnitude is evidently on the higher in the rural areas in the 2001-11.The declining child sex ratio is a pan Indian phenomenon, as it will lead to serious demographic imbalances and adverse social consequences.

Utilization of irrigation and cropping intensity in Uttar Dinajpur district, West Bengal, India

Ms.Reshmi Sarkar

Irrigation is practised in those areas where rainfall is seasonal and the amount is not satisfactory for crop production. The monsoonal land having seasonal rainfall, require irrigation either from canal, tank or well so as to ensure agricultural production. In India rainfall is seasonal and the distribution of rainfall is uneven. India has the largest acreage of land under irrigation. In the high irrigated area the cropping intensity is found high and in the low irrigated area cropping intensity is found low. This article focussed on the present status of irrigation and cropping pattern on block basis in the Uttar Dinajpur district, in West Bengal, India. After applying different methods and technique (Pearson’s product moment correlation co-efficient, Regression line etc.). It has been concluded that the districts has a positive relation between two variables. Though the ground water utilisation is the main source of irrigation but other sources are also used to increase the cropping intensity in the region. Some blocks gets high irrigation facilities but the facilities is not well enough.

Disable population of Manipur: A spatial analysis

Santosh Kumar

The study area of the present paper is Manipur which is located at 23.830N to 25.680N latitude and 93.030E to 94.780E longitude and primarily based on secondary data, collected from Census of India. The study analysis the Temporal Change in Disable persons 2001 to 2011 and also finds out spatial pattern of disable persons in 2011. Data is analysed with the help of general statistical techniques, and ARC GIS 9.3 software.  The spatial pattern of Disable persons have been classified into Low, Moderate, High and Very High categories. In 2011 higher proportion of disable age group 10-19, 20-29 and 30-39. This age group represent 17 percent and 15 percent of total disable persons. The increase of disable population is 0.87 percent in 2011 compared to 2001.   

Gender disparity in level of literacy in Himachal Pradesh, 2011: a spatial perspective

Sandeep Kumar and Sujan Singh

Although, male and female constitutes the important segment of our population. Since from the inception of human life, the female got second preference than male in all activites. Education is not exceptional one. In present study, an attempt has been made to examine the gender disparity in overall literacy along with rural-urban areas of Himachal Pradesh at district level. The study is based on secondary sources of data. The data pertaining to all twelve districts of the state have been obtained from directorate of Census Operations, Shimla. The district constitutes the basic unit of observation. The Sopher disparity index (1974) modified by Kundu and Rao (1980) has been used to find out the gender disparity in overall literacy along with rural and urban areas. The spatial variations in literary at district level have been shown by maps and tables. It is evident from the study that significant improvement has been observed in male-female literacy and the gender gap has decreased from 22.96 per cent in 1971 to 13.06 per cent in 2011. As per 2011 Census, the gender disparity in literacy was lower (0.12) in study area as compare to national average of 0.15. However, there were notable spatial variations at district level. The gender disparity in literacy is two-fold higher in Chamba (0.20) which ranked at top place while Una district with 0.10 placed at bottom rank among all twelve districts. Furthermore, the variations of literacy among the male and female in the state become further clear when it is considered separately for rural and urban areas. It is evident from the study that the gender disparity in literacy is more marked in rural areas as compares to urban one. In rural areas, the Chamba district with 0.21 has highest gender disparity followed by Lahual-Spiti (0.17) and Kullu (0.16). On contrary, Una district has low gender disparity (0.10) closely followed by Kangra and Hamirpur district. With regard to gender disparity in urban areas, Chamba and Kullu district have recorded disparity above 0.06 whereas the Shimla district with 0.03 index value closely followed by Solan and Mandi districts have witnessed least disparity in male and female literacy. It is evident from the study that the gender disparity in rural areas (0.21) seven times more than urban areas (0.03) of the state.

Soil degradation and conservation of Chopra block- a case study of Uttar Dinajpur district, West Bengal

Ms.Reshmi Sarkar

Erosion is a comprehensive natural process of detachment and removal of loosened rock materials and soils by exogenetic processes such as running water, ground water, sea waves, wind, glacier. In fact the damage and degradation caused to the soil due to compactness, smearing, excessive working etc. through human activities is called “Soil Degradation``. Chopra block of Uttar Dinajpur is densely populated agricultural area. It is situated in high rainfall zone including many rivers following from north to south direction. All the rivers have their origin from the Darjeeling Himalayas. Thus water volume and velocity of the rivers became high during rainy season. So in this study area stream erosion in the main cause of soil erosion. This study shows the present status of denuded soil of Chopra block and discusses the factors which are responsible for this erosion and also focuses on the efficient and scientific conservation measures which are applied to that area to check soil erosion for further improvement in soil fertility of Chopra block.  

Tourism industry of North Bengal ¬- from Geographical point of view a steps toward planning and development

Mr.Chiranjib Nad

The term Tourism has been emerged as a major industry since World War II. This tourism industry is developed around a region of unique characteristics of natural, social, cultural, ethnic resource diversity and so on. North Bengal comprises of six districts namely Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Coochbehar, Uttar Dinajpur, Dakshin Dinajpur, and Malda. Each of the above districts has unique characteristics in respect of natural, social, cultural, ethnic resources. The natural beauty of Darjeeling mountain, reserve forest of Terai and Dooars, heritage site of  Malda and the folk culture of forest surrounded rural area in North Bengal are attracting tourists (both domestic and international) from all over the world. The Darjeeling hills are well known as Queen of Hills. The Darjeeling Tea and Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) are regarded as the heritage of Darjeeling Hills. The unique ethnic community of Totopara of Jalpaiguri district, Coochbehar Rajbari and Heritage site of Malda (Goura) district has a major interest of tourist worldwide. This industry emerged as an important segment of daily life of the people, strengthening their economy and also generates supplementary income for local in rural as well as urban areas. But today lack of proper management the tourism industry of North Bengal has been suffered a lot. This paper is an attempt to focus the present problem and planning to rejuvenate development of Tourism industry of the study area.  

Dynamics of population size, density and growth in Himachal Pradesh, India (1981-2011)

Mr.Ritesh Kumar, Mr.Khyal Chand

The population of Himachal Pradesh has been increasing unabatedly since last four decades. The present paper attempts to analyze the trends in population size, density and its growth in the study area during the study period. The study is based upon secondary data. It discusses the changing scenario of population size, density and growth during the four census years (1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011). The study reveals that the population has been increasing continuously and unevenly from 1980s to 2011. The distribution of population presents an inverse correlation between area and population during the study period, because geographically small districts are supporting more population and vice-versa. The study brings out that population density has also been increased over the period. The density of population also presents an inverse correlation between area and population during the study period, because geographically small districts support more human population and vice-versa. The overall growth of population has registered 60.16% increase between 1981-2011.  

Migration patterns and its selectivity in Madhyamgram Municipality, North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal

Chaitanyadev Saha

Migration, one of the most important dynamics of population change, is a form of geographical and spatial mobility between one geographical unit and another, generally involving in change in residence from one place to another. In this present study an attempt has been made to discuss about the patterns and selectivity of migration in Madhyamgram Municipality. By using simple random sampling techniques 585 samples have been selected from the study area with the help of a structured questionnaire. Migration is a decision making process. Such process of changing behaviour has been studied carefully to investigate how the different factors influenced to establish the present scenario. How migrational attitudes of men have become a developmental trait in the study area have been analysed .  

Spatial patterns of sex ratio in Rajasthan, 2011: A Geographical analysis

Prem chand

Among the various qualitative attributes of population, sex ratio holds an important place as it is a reliable index of the socio-economic conditions prevailing in an area and it is a useful tool for regional analysis. The present paper is an attempt to analyse the trends in sex ratio, spatial patterns, and rural- urban differences in sex ratio in Rajasthan. Sex ratio of Rajasthan is mainly the outcome of interplay of sex differentials in mortality, sex selective migration, sex ratio at birth and at times the sex differences in population enumeration. Sex ratio of Rajasthan is fluctuating in narrow band in last five decades. If keenly observe that the decadal difference in sex ratio is very little, 7 to 11 points only. In other words, there were wide regional differences in rural – urban sex ratio in the state at district level. The area having excess of females over males were characteristic of areas from where male population are out migrated. Whereas area having low sex ratio was associated with, high female mortality rates during infancy and high male selective in migration in response to growing development. It also tries to investigate the possible cause such high-level gap of between rural- urban sex ratio and to suggest some measure to minimize the gap.  

A study on natural and man-made problems with some remedies of the East Kolkata wetland

Shovon Kumar Pal

     Wetlands are the collection forms of marshes, swamps, bogs and similar areas. Wetlands are found in flat vegetated areas in depressions in landscapes and between water and dry land along the edges of streams, rivers, lakes and coastlines. These wetlands have been existing for more than one hundred years, a lasting tradition of disposal and utilization of urban waste in agricultural field and fisheries. The local people have employed a remarkable system of nature to help to meet the three basic problems of the developing countries-shortage of food, shortage of employment opportunities and shortage of funds to treat the waste. Wetlands also play a great role in flood control, treatment of waste water, reduction of sediments, productions of organic materials and control of pollution. Multistorage buildings on agricultural land, low ground water level, increased salinity in water and soil, Deforestation are the chief causes of imbalanced urban ecosystem. There are many parameters in this study. This study has analyzed the causes of environmental problems of East Kolkata Wetlands. This paper is concerned with the environmental problems of the wetlands and how its impact has changed the urban ecosystem and the urban environment. Many of the urban poor live in wetlands areas and are deprived of various basic needs. So this study proves that the environmental problems are there.  

Scenario of the juvenile delinquency in India, causes & remedial measures

Scenario of the juvenile delinquency in India, causes & remedial measures

Juvenile delinquency is also known as youth crime or youth offence. It is a part of social pollution. Society is an artificial system formed by complex relationship. It has set of values and norms which help in maintaining harmonious relationship between the members of the society.  But when these values are being degraded, then, it leads to the social pollution. If any society sticks to the redundant values and the norms, then, it makes a room for social degradation. We cannot clean the environment unless our society is cleaned properly or proper awareness is created in the society to desist the old practice and tradition.  

Problems and Prospects of Tourism Industry in Sikkim

Dr. Pradip Kumar Das

In mid 1970s, Sikkim became a part of India. Sikkim also holds the status of 8th north eastern state of the country. The state is of strategic importance to the India as it shares three international borders with China, Nepal and Bhutan. The economy of the state is heavily dependent on the central government. Because of its location, the state attracts tourist and the tourism industry also grown manifold in recent years. However, the industry also faces lots of problems in the form of frequent landslides, lack of infrastructure development, poor implementation of government initiatives, lack of proper awareness programme etc. The state of Sikkim at the same time has the potential to be the prime tourist destination of the country with lots of bio diversity, scope for eco tourism, adventure tourism, religious tourism etc.Tourism in the State of Sikkim is growing at a rapid pace in a very well thought of and planned manner. Sikkim now has become one of the best sought after hill destinations at the global level. The leadership is very committed and the State Government has been very effective and successful in educating and guiding the people regarding tourism on the basic principle of Sustainable Development.The present study focuses on the dynamics of tourism development and its positive and negative impacts on resources, environment, and local communities. The scope of the survey is to study about the problems and prospects of the tourism industry in the state of Sikkim. The study uses both the primary and secondary data to elicit information. Basically interview methods are adopted for getting information from the respondents.

Empowerment of Dalit in Panchayati Raj

N. Satish, Research Scholar

73rd Amendment Act 1992 accorded special reservation for Dalit and offered a wide chance to Dalit women to participate in Panchayati Raj Institutions in India. In the backdrop of the fact that this Act was enacted pan India in 1996 except Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland, the present study inquires whether reservation policy provided by the 73rd Amendment Act has empowered the rise of new leadership among the Dalit, or motivated them to participate voluntarily in the village body elections. Through the local body election in each village of India the following members are elected: Chairperson, President, and ward member, they have been playing a meaningful role in local governance for public good through the panchayat elections. This study is focusing on impact of Dalit reservation in panchayat Raj administration and attempts to evaluate how far these rights have been used by them for the their political participation to meet the expectations of people. Most of the elected representatives of the Dalits and Dalit women are illiterate with insufficient literary knowledge about the functions and procedure of Panchayat Raj setup. Additionally, caste system plays a vital role in rural India toward impeding the function and delegation of panchayat raj power to deprived people across India. The high caste people who are economically and politically strong are capable of governing Panchayat administration than other community. Thus the status of other community people seemingly are pitiful and ignored in the Panchyat Raj administration by the affluent and dominant community.  Dominant community as well as dominant political party appears unwilling to see the Dalit prosperity.

Eldery in joint family: a Sociological exegesis of intergenerational connectivity in urban India

Mr. Priyaranjan Behera, Dr. K. Gulam Dasthagir

In an era of increasing elderly population and living household arrangement of the aged people pose an emergent challenge in contemporary society for the present as well as for the future.  It is further problematized by the fact of greater density of population and scarcity of living space accompanied by the mushrooming of old age homes in urban areas. In an overarching post –industrial and individuating social relationships, family as the primary institution of social organization is perceived by social scientists. Such an emergent social reality not only questions the structural integration of the family but also the functionality of the family relationships.  In the backdrop of ever increasing elderly population and their integration in social system, this paper is an attempt to synthesize   the theoretical and empirical propositions on the intergenerational relationships in urban families with special reference to the inclusion of the elderly in urban society.

The role of neighborhood watch and the relationship between victimization, fear of crime and security system in Malaysia

Syarmila Hany Haron

This research is concerning the Role of the Neighborhood Watch as a method to deter criminality in the Pelangi apartment, George Town, Penang. The determination of research is to regulate the understanding and the attentiveness of the tenants towards the notion and the functions of the Neighborhood Watch scheme and their involvement in order to certify the personal security and that of the neighbors. In addition to that, the study is also to establish whether the Neighborhood Watch scheme is able to alleviate the fear of crime and to reduce the cases of criminal acts such as house breaking, vandalism, robberies and thefts of personal belongings. Besides, this study is also trying to implement the Neighborhood Watch in the area. The research was completed within a survey method using questionnaires to acquire the significant data, regarding199 samples of the Pelangi’s apartment residents. The data was furthermore collected from the face to face interviews and study documentation. The data were successively evaluated via the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences as a result of together with descriptive as well as the inference statistics. The results of the research indicated that there was a mutual comprehension and responsiveness among the residents of the Pelangi apartment concerning the concept and the roles of the Neighborhood Watch Scheme. The occupants also joined in its activities in order to certify personal security and the security of the residents. Nevertheless, the research correspondingly revealed that the Neighborhood Watch scheme did not lessen the fear of crime amid the tenants and did not decrease the related criminal acts of burglary, vandalism, and thefts in the area. The findings of the research also disclosed that there was no significant relationship between the application of the Neighborhood Watch scheme and the decline of criminal cases.   

Status of education among the Muslims of Manipur: prospects and challenges

Md. Chingiz Khan, Md. Abdul Kadir & Mohd. Sarwar Rahman

Education is one of the most instrumental tools of sustainable development of any society, individual and community. It can channelize the rural areas to a higher priority basis and platform. To become a knowledge society and community is to develop the essence of higher education explicitly. It is important to remember the words of B. R. Ambedkar, “Education is something which ought to be brought within the reach of everyone. My final word to you ‘Educate, agitate and organize; have faith in yourself’.” In an under-developed state like Manipur, there are many problems faced by the people particularly the Muslim community on a large scale. How this obstacle can be removed is only through explicit higher education. In this seminal piece, an attempt has been made to explore analytically the historical juncture of educational status among the Muslim community of Manipur. Another attempt is being made to examine the problems and challenges faced by the Muslim community in getting higher education in Manipur. Does the state have an ‘inclusive’ and ‘exclusive’ policy in the promotion and developmental works of higher educational institutes belonging to the marginalized communities with special reference to Muslim community? There is much essential to be focused on the roles of state in the promotion of higher educational institute among the marginalized communities particularly the Muslim community in the state. All these fundamental issues with regard to the status of education along with their problems and prospects need to be explored and examined as objectively as possible here. 

Gender disparity and rural poverty in Kerala: implications and issues

Jafar K & Dr. K.Gulam Dasthagir

Women perhaps are the poorest of even the poor in human society. This gender disparity gets doubly accentuated in the rural context in which women are succumbed to regional backwardness as well as backwardness among the poor. In this scenario the present paper is an attempt to enquire in to the ramifications of poverty to rural women with a view to examine the prevalence and predicaments of gender issues in kerala. This paper premised on the analysis of secondary data drawn from 2011 census report of India, throws light on the persistence of gender disparity among the rural poor in Kerala. It brings in to sharp focus issues pertaining to life, livelihood and health of women of rural Kerala. It highlights feminization of rural poverty, feminization of agriculture, feminization of rural malnutrition, feminization of rural indebtedness and gender gap in rural poverty alleviation efforts as issues  perpetuating gender disparity  in rural poverty. 

Anthropometric profile and nutritional status of selected Mavasi tribal in Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh

Irshad Khan, Rajeswar Maharana

The present study was carried out to determine anthropometric profile and nutritional status of selected Mavasi tribal of Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh. Mavasi is one of the tribe of Madhya Pradesh. A total of 75 households comprising of 115 individuals (60 adult male and 55 adult female) of Chhindwara district were selected for present study. Interviewed though the help of a pre-tested structured scheduled have prepared for the collection of health related data. Various anthropometric nutritional statuses were calculated by BMI, Pigent index, Broca index and Wirth’s standard. In this present paper we can see various results on nutritional status in Mavasi tribe (both male and female) ranging the age between 20-50 year, have been highlighting in BMI 59.50% grade III,II,I  malnutrition series. Apart from this, the present paper also reveals that the overall socio-economic condition of Mavasi tribe. The pignet index shows that 46.88% of Mavasi male are weak to poor state of physique. In conclusion the studies provide evidence that the nutritional status of both male and female adult was not satisfactory. Among the Mavasi tribe the adult female were having more nutritional deficiency than adult male. Immediate appropriate nutrition intervention programme are needed for improving their status.   

A study on the problems of first-generation girl learners of ST and SC group at the secondary schools in the district of Birbhum, West Bengal

Priyabrata Mondal, Arijit Ghosh & Prof. Tarak Nath Pan

According to John Dewy, “Life is education”. It is in Indian constitution that free and compulsory education must be universalised for all children up to 14 years age. It is questionable enough that whether India has become successful or not to spray this mission to each and every section of our Indian society. First generation girl’s learner of scheduled caste & scheduled tribe of Birbhum district (W.B, India) have been found to face various problems in secondary educational level. That’s why they are lagging hundred steps behind the average level. Here a step has been taken to focus light on those problems in order to find out solutions of those problems through different educational plans.

Literacy Overview: A Case Study of Purulia District West Bengal

Mr.Meelan Chamling

A comprehensive study of various facts and figures and diverse statistical variables pertaining to literacy reveals that the district of Purulia is constantly being one of the backward districts in terms of literacy in the whole of West Bengal. Over the last consecutive decades, literacy transition and developmental process in the district is not very encouraging. A wide and deep fissure is been visible in terms of literacy transformation among the various attributes of the population. Moreover, Purulia also highlights wide and varied regional disparity in its literacy morphology. As such this paper attempts to study and analyze the decadal literacy trends and its changing pattern in the district. Further, it also try to make a comprehensive and critical study of literacy trends at the lowest administrative level i.e CD Blocks/Municipalities with respect to various social-cultural attributes of the district, in order to highlight the actual overview of literacy and bring out the important salient features observed over the decade to throw some lights on its changing literate characteristics.  

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